ValueGrids

Unterstützung von dynamischen Wertschöpfungsnetzen durch service-orientierte Grid-Infrastrukturen

Das Projekt ValueGrids erschließt die D-Grid-Infrastruktur für eine grundlegend neue Community, nämlich die Nutzer und Anbieter von Software-basierten Dienstleistungen (Software-as-a-Service Anbieter). Gartner schätzt den Marktanteil dieser Community allein im Bereich Business-Software in 4 Jahren auf 30%. Dabei zählen sowohl große Software-Anbieter als auch unzählige kleine und mittlere Unternehmen zum wachsenden Kreis der SaaS-Nutzer und -Anbieter. SaaS-Angebote profitieren signifikant von Grid-Infrastrukturen, wenn sie deren inhärente Flexibilität und Skalierbarkeit nutzen, um ihre Dienste flexibel und abgestimmt auf die Bedürfnisse ihrer Kunden bereitzustellen. Kostenbewusst können SaaS-Anbieter so insbesondere dynamisch auf Lastspitzen reagieren.

Ziel dieses Community-Projekts ist das ganzheitliche Management von Wertschöpfungsketten, die durch Grid-basierte Dienste realisiert werden. Grundlegend hierbei ist die transparente Kopplung zwischen den jeweiligen SLAs auf Ebene der Wertschöpfungsketten und auf Grid-Infrastruktur-Ebene, welche durch das SLA-Projekt des 3. Calls im Rahmen der D-Grid Fördermaßnahme "Grid-Dienste für Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft" des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) abgedeckt werden.
Diese müssen sowohl im horizontalen Kontext der Wertschöpfungskette als auch im vertikalen Kontext der Service-orientierten Architektur eines Diensterbringers gemanagt werden. Letztlich werden dabei alle Ausprägungen der SLAs auf die jeweilige Infrastruktur heruntergebrochen, d.h. das Infrastrukturmanagement muss in enger Synchronisation mit diesen SLAs erfolgen. Zur Erschließung der D-Grid-Infrastruktur für die SaaS-Community entwickelt das Projekt ValueGrids eine ServiceLevel-Management Komponente. Dieser Dienst ermöglicht das transparente Management von Service-basierten Wertschöpfungsnetzen und ihren nicht-funktionalen Eigenschaften auf Basis der D-Grid Infrastruktur.
http://www.d-grid-ggmbh.de/index.php?id=91&L=1
Ansprechpartner: Dr. Simon Caton, Professor Dr. Christof Weinhardt
Partner:
Gefördert durch: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
"ValueGrids" ist als eines der wesentlichen Projekte im KIT-Schwerpunkt COMMputation.
ValueGrids Publikationen

1
Michalk, W.; Filipova-Neumann, L.; Blau, B.; Weinhardt, C. 2011
Reducing Risk or Increasing Profit? Provider Decisions in Agreement Networks. Service Science 3(3). 206–222.
http://www.sersci.com/ServiceScience/upload/12922338130.pdf
@Article{CitationKey,
author = {Michalk, Wibke and Filipova-Neumann, Lilia and Blau, Benjamin and
Weinhardt, Christof},
title = {{Reducing Risk or Increasing Profit? Provider Decisions in Agreement
Networks}},
journal = {Service Science},
year = {2011},
volume = {3},
pages = {206-222},
number = {3},
url = {http://www.sersci.com/ServiceScience/upload/12922338130.pdf},
key = {Risk Management; Service Value Networks; Service Portfolio Optimization;
Utility},
abstract = {The rise of Software as a Service (SaaS) composition platforms and
so called Compute Clouds demonstrates the growing demand for the agile composition
of Web Services. In order to facilitate the composition of services and
value-creation, service providers need to collaborate. This collaboration is
regulated by means of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) where the parties, the
executed service as well as guarantees on the service execution are specified.
This work presents the concept of Service Value Networks and Agreement Networks
as the underlying legal structure. Furthermore, an approach is introduced that
allows a service provider to select the risk-minimal SLA portfolio. In a further
step, the approach is extended in order to allow for a tradeoff between risk
and expected profit from the service execution. Finally, the computational
complexity of the optimization model is discussed and solutions are proposed.}}

					
 
2
Michalk, W. 2011
Risk-Aware SLA Establishment in Agreement Networks - an Evaluation. in: Tuunainen, V.; Nandhakumar, J.; Rossi, M.; Soliman, W. (eds.), Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems - ECIS 2011. (Helsinki, Finland). ISBN 978-952-60-3574-1.
http://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2011/93/
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Michalk, Wibke},
title = {{Risk-Aware SLA Establishment in Agreement Networks - 

an Evaluation}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems
- ECIS 2011},
year = {2011},
address = {Helsinki, Finland},
editor = {Tuunainen, Virpi and Nandhakumar, Joe and Rossi, Matti and Soliman,
Wael},
month = {June},
note = {ISBN 978-952-60-3574-1},
url = {http://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2011/93/},
abstract = {The rise of Software as a Service (SaaS) platforms is driven by
the current trend towards customer- oriented, agile and scalable service
provisioning. Customers’ demand for highly specialized services can mostly not
be met by a single provider that offers a holistic solution but by a consortium
of providers that cooperate. In order to enable the combination of services
and hence, the collaboration between different service providers, technical
challenges like the compatibility of interfaces have to be dealt with. In
addition, economic issues concerning profit, reliability and risk of service
failure have to be taken into consideration.

A model of Agreement Networks (ANs) is presented that illustrate the legal
bindings that are established or under negotiation between service providers
and a methodology is introduced that supports providers in ANs to decide on
the establishment of a combination of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) that incurs
the lowest risk of SLA violation. Finally, a benchmark for risk-based decisions
is derived that serves to evaluate the efficiency of the choice. The impact
of the available amount of monitoring data on the decision is investigated and
a minimal amount of 100 observations for each SLA combination is suggested.}}

					
 
3
Michalk, W.; Caton, S. 2010
Service Level Management in Dynamic Value Networks. INFORMATIK 2010: Service Science - Neue Perspektiven fuer die Informatik Band 1. (Leipzig) vol. P-175. Gesellschaft fuer Informatik. ISBN: 978-3-88579-269-7. 126–131.
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Michalk, Wibke and Caton, Simon},
title = {{Service Level Management in Dynamic Value Networks}},
booktitle = {INFORMATIK 2010: Service Science - Neue Perspektiven fuer die
Informatik Band 1},
year = {2010},
address = {Leipzig},
pages = {126-131},
volume = {P-175},
publisher = {Gesellschaft fuer Informatik},
note = {ISBN: 978-3-88579-269-7},
abstract = {This paper presents a framework for Service Level Management in
dynamic, heterogeneous environments for service composition. Assumptions to
and the architecture of a framework is introduced that enables risk-aware
decisions in dynamic service composition environments. The implementation in
the project ValueGrids is described.}}

					
 
4
Conte, T.; Blau, B.; Xu, Y. 2010
Competition of Service Marketplaces - Designing Growth in Service Networks. Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). Paper 287.
http://web.up.ac.za/ecis/ECIS2010PR/ECIS2010/Content/Papers/0287.R1.pdf
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Conte, Tobias and Blau, Benjamin and Xu, Yongchun},
title = {{Competition of Service Marketplaces - Designing Growth in Service
Networks}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems
(ECIS)},
year = {2010},
note = {Paper 287},
url = {http://web.up.ac.za/ecis/ECIS2010PR/ECIS2010/Content/Papers/0287.R1.pdf},
abstract = {The cloud computing paradigm gives rise to Web service marketplaces
where complex services are provided by several, modular vendors. Recently more
and more intermediaries are pushing onto the market, thereby driving competition.
Offering innovative business models which are capable of attracting service
providers and consumers is a reasonable strategy to beat competitors and to
take advantage of network effects. We develop a mechanism that introduces a
novel way of distributing revenues among service providers – the power ratio.
Its underlying presumption is not only to compensate service providers who
actually contribute to the complex service offered at a time, but also to pay
out partners who are on standby – i.e. vendors that support the network’s variety
and stability, but actually do not contribute to the complex service delivered.

We show that a payment function that is based upon the power ratio is a promising
approach to draw in service providers as it outperforms a payment function that
rewards vendors merely based on their actual allocation in terms of expected
payoffs for different types of service vendors.}}

					
 
5
Krämer, J.; Conte, T.; Blau, B.; van Dinther, C.; Weinhardt, C. 2010
Service Value Networks: Unleashing the Combinatorial Power of Service Mashups. Working Paper, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
http://ssrn.com/abstract=1582902
@Unpublished{CitationKey,
author = {Kr\"{a}mer, Jan and Conte, Tobias and Blau, Benjamin and van Dinther,
Clemens and Weinhardt, Christof},
title = {{Service Value Networks: Unleashing the Combinatorial Power of Service
Mashups}},
note = {Working Paper, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology},
year = {2010},
url = {http://ssrn.com/abstract=1582902},
abstract = {The long tail phenomenon has been heavily discussed in recent years.
What has been neglected so far is its striking relevance for electronic services.
Whereas consumers’ expectations about information goods are often vague and
transient, their requirements are pronounced and specific when it comes to the
functional and non-functional characteristics of electronic services. Moreover,
modular services can be combined and configured into service mashups that meet
virtually every conceivable consumer requirement. In this vein, the long tail
phenomenon can be leveraged into a new dimension -- the long valley, where every
service exerts positive network externalities on the remaining services, thereby
spurring an increase in supply and demand. The combinatorics of constructible
service mashups are enabled by universally accessible service orchestration
platforms known as Service Value Networks (SVNs). This article shall not only
pave the way for a rising research area on a new business trend, but will also
help business actors to harness the opportunities opened up by SVNs.}}

					
 
6
Michalk, W.; Blau, B. 2010
Risk in Agreement Networks Decision Support for Service-Intermediaries. Journal of Information Systems and e-Business Management (ISeBM) 9(2). 247–266.
doi:10.1007/s10257-010-0145-1
http://www.springerlink.com/content/u75h55x386534w65/
@Article{CitationKey,
author = {Michalk, Wibke and Blau, Benjamin},
title = {{Risk in Agreement Networks Decision Support for
Service-Intermediaries}},
journal = {Journal of Information Systems and e-Business Management (ISeBM)},
year = {2010},
volume = {9},
pages = {247-266},
number = {2},
month = {March},
doi = {10.1007/s10257-010-0145-1},
url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/u75h55x386534w65/}}

					
 
7
Filipova-Neumann, L.; Michalk, W.; Blau, B.; Weinhardt, C. 2010
Incentivation of Service Providers for Efficient Service Composition Agreements. Proceedings of the International Conference on e-Commerce, e-Business and e-Service 2010 (ICCBS 2010). (Paris, France). 1569–1583.
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Filipova-Neumann, Lilia and Michalk, Wibke and Blau, Benjamin and
Weinhardt, Christof},
title = {{Incentivation of Service Providers for Efficient Service Composition
Agreements}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on e-Commerce, e-Business
and e-Service 2010 (ICCBS 2010)},
year = {2010},
address = {Paris, France},
pages = {1569-1583},
month = {June},
abstract = {The trend towards dynamic on-demand service provisioning requires
the collaboration of a high number of specialized service providers. One challenge
of service composition with numerous service providers is the rising uncertainty
of service delivery, which depends inter alia on the providers’ effort. Penalties
for defecting from agreed service level objectives serve to reduce the uncertainty
of service provision and to incentivize providers. In a scenario, where an
intermediary coordinates complementary service providers and consumers, we derive
the following results: the intermediary should not pursue as high as possible
penalties because there are profit-maximizing providers’ effort and penalties
which decrease with the number of providers; a particular service provider’s
penalty should not depend on this provider’s but on all other service providers’
probabilities of service delivery; the intermediary should react to a cost
reduction of one service provider or to an increase of consumer’s valuation
by increasing all service providers’ penalties.}}

					
 
8
van Dinther, C.; Blau, B.; Conte, T.; Weinhardt, C. 2011, forthcoming
Designing Auctions for Coordination in Service Networks. in: Demirkan, H.; Spohrer, J. C.; Krishna, V. (eds.), The Science of Service Systems. Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy. Springer. ISBN: 978-1-4419-8269-8.
http://www.springer.com/computer/swe/book/978-1-4419-8269-8
@Inbook{CitationKey,
author = {van Dinther, Clemens and Blau, Benjamin and Conte, Tobias and Weinhardt,
Christof},
title = {{Designing Auctions for Coordination in Service Networks}},
booktitle = {The Science of Service Systems},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2011},
editor = {Demirkan, Haluk and Spohrer, James C. and Krishna, Vikas},
series = {Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy},
note = {ISBN: 978-1-4419-8269-8},
url = {http://www.springer.com/computer/swe/book/978-1-4419-8269-8}}

					
 
9
Schulz, F.; Momm, C.; Westermann, D.; Blau, B.; Michalk, W.; Hedwig, M.; Rolli, D.; Afaghi, O. K.; Schmidt, A. 2010
ValueGrids: Using Grids in Dynamic Service Value Networks. in: Bubak, M.; Turala, M.; Wiatr, K. (eds.), Proceedings of the Cracow Grid Workshop 2009 (CGW'09). (Cracow, Poland). ISBN 978-83-61433-01-9. 204–211.
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Schulz, F. and Momm, C. and Westermann, D. and Blau, B. and Michalk,
W. and Hedwig, M. and Rolli, D. and Afaghi, O. K. and Schmidt, A.},
title = {{ValueGrids: Using Grids in Dynamic Service Value Networks}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Cracow Grid Workshop 2009  (CGW'09)},
year = {2010},
address = {Cracow, Poland},
pages = {204-211},
editor = {Bubak, Marian and Turala, Michal and Wiatr, Kazimierz},
note = {ISBN 978-83-61433-01-9},
abstract = {In recent years, Grid infrastructures have proven to be invaluable
in the area of scientific computing and high-performance computing (HPC). However,
the use of Grid infrastructures in complex business scenarios remains an open
research topic. A major goal of the ValueGrids project, funded by the German
Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) as part of the German Grid
initiative (D-Grid), is the development of a concept to demonstrate how Grid
infrastructures can substantially support complex business scenarios. This
position paper describes the vision of the ValueGrids project as well as an
approach to provide sustainability of Grid infrastructures.}}

					
 
10
Michalk, W.; Stoesser, J.; Blau, B.; Weinhardt, C. 2010
Risk-based decision support in service value networks. Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS). (Koloa, Kauai, Hawaii). Computer Society Press. (CD-ROM), 9 pages.
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Michalk, Wibke and Stoesser, Jochen and Blau, Benjamin and Weinhardt,
Christof},
title = {{Risk-based decision support in service value networks}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System
Sciences (HICSS)},
year = {2010},
address = {Koloa, Kauai, Hawaii},
month = {January},
publisher = {Computer Society Press},
note = {(CD-ROM), 9 pages},
abstract = {The current trend towards dynamic and highly scalable

service provisioning fosters the rise of Software as a Service

(SaaS) platforms and so called Compute Clouds. The

on-demand provisioning of services gains more and more

influence. For offering enriched services that are capable

of performing complex tasks, the dynamic composition of

such services becomes important. In order to enable the

collaboration between different service providers, technical

and economic preliminaries have to be made. This work

will cover economic considerations from the viewpoint of

a service provider. Therefore, the concept of Service Value

Networks is presented and an agreement network as underlying

legal structure is illustrated. Finally, an approach that

enables a service provider to select the risk-minimal combination

of contracts is elaborated and discussed.}}

					
 
11
Blau, B.; Conte, T.; van Dinther, C. 2009
A Multidimensional Procurement Auction for Trading Composite Services. Issue in the Electronic Commerce Research and Applications Elsevier Journal on: Emerging Economic, Strategic and Technical Issues in Online Auctions and Electronic Market Mechanisms 9(5). 460–472.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.elerap.2009.11.001
@Article{CitationKey,
author = {Blau, Benjamin and Conte, Tobias and van Dinther, Clemens},
title = {{A Multidimensional Procurement Auction for Trading Composite Services}},
journal = {Issue in the Electronic Commerce Research and Applications Elsevier
Journal on: Emerging Economic, Strategic and Technical Issues in Online Auctions
and Electronic Market Mechanisms},
year = {2009},
volume = {9},
pages = {460-472},
number = {5},
month = {September},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.elerap.2009.11.001},
abstract = {Recently, static value chains are gradually  giving way to highly
agile service value networkswhich implies novel economic and organizational
challenges. Added value for customers is created by feasible compositions of
distributed service components. This work focuses on the design of a
multidimensional procurement auction for trading service compositions and the
analysis of service provider strategies that participate in the procurement
process. The mechanism implementation is incentive compatible, meaning that
it implements an equilibrium in which revealing the true multidimensional type
(QoS and valuation) is a weakly dominant strategy for all service providers.
Due to combinatorial restrictions imposed by the underlying graph topology,
the winner determination problem can be solved in polynomial time in contrary
to computational intractable combinatorial auctions. Furthermore we provide
a simulation-based analysis based on reinforcement learning model of bundling
and unbundling strategies of service providers that participate in the auction.
Based on our results we discuss strategic recommendations for service providers
depending on how they are situated within the network.}}

					
 
12
Blau, B. 2009
Coordination in Service Value Networks - A Mechanism Design Approach. Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Universität Karlsruhe (TH). Dissertation, Referent/Betreuer: Prof. Dr. Christof Weinhardt.
http://digbib.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/volltexte/1000012353
@Phdthesis{CitationKey,
author = {Blau, Benjamin},
title = {{Coordination in Service Value Networks - A Mechanism Design Approach}},
school = {Fakult\"{a}t f\"{u}r Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Universit\"{a}t
Karlsruhe (TH)},
year = {2009},
note = {Dissertation, Referent/Betreuer: Prof. Dr. Christof Weinhardt},
url = {http://digbib.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/volltexte/1000012353},
abstract = {The fundamental paradigm shift from traditional value chains to
agile service value networks (SVN) implies new economic and organizational
challenges. This work provides an auction-based coordination mechanism that
enables the allocation and pricing of service compositions in SVNs. The mechanism
is multidimensional incentive compatible and implements an ex-post service level
enforcement. Further extensions of the mechanism are evaluated following
analytical and numerical research methods.}}

					
 
13
Blau, B.; Krämer, J.; Conte, T.; van Dinther, C. 2009
Service Value Networks. in: Hofreiter, B.; Werthner, H. (eds.), Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Conference on Commerce and Enterprise Computing. (Vienna, Austria, 20-23 July 2009). IEEE. ISBN 978-0-7695-3755-9. 194–201.
doi:10.1109/CEC.2009.64
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Blau, Benjamin and Kr\"{a}mer, Jan and Conte, Tobias and van Dinther,
Clemens},
title = {{Service Value Networks}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Conference on Commerce and Enterprise
Computing},
year = {2009},
address = {Vienna, Austria, 20-23 July 2009},
pages = {194-201},
editor = {Hofreiter, Birgit and Werthner, Hannes},
publisher = {IEEE},
note = {ISBN 978-0-7695-3755-9},
doi = {10.1109/CEC.2009.64},
abstract = {The current industry-driven trend in providing flexible software
services lays the ground for the new research area "service value networks"
(SVNs). We observe a rising number of industry-oriented publications provided
by research departments of large companies such as IBM or SAP as well as the
fact that more and more IS conferences offer special tracks on that issue.
However, when it comes to formalizing and economically analyzing such SVNs that
offer joint complex services to service customers, scientific approaches are
in their infancy. We intend to fill this research gap by providing a clear
understanding of service value networks by defining their characteristics, their
structure, and their components.

Mapping these aspects into a formalized model, we intend to establish a reference
point for future work in the area of service value networks.}}

					
KIT – University of the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg and National Research Center of the Helmholtz Association