Biz2Grid

Moving Business to the Grid – An Application for the Automotive Industry

Biz2Grid aims at migrating industrial business applications to existing grid-middleware systems. Therefore it is necessary to design the organizational structure and an economically reasonable billing & pricing for grid resources in combination with technically implementation in commercial example settings.

At the associate partner BMW Group, two applications are searched which can be exemplarily for commercial scenarios in using grids. Besides the pure technical implementation it should be determined how the existing IT structures in planning, procurement and maintenance can dynamically be affected by market mechanisms while holding up a stable control and business environment.

On the one hand Biz2Grid contributes to commercial use of grid applications. On the other hand project resultant services (e.g. billing & pricing) can be used for the D-Grid network as well as for developing commercial products with proprietary components.

Contact: Thomas Meinl, Steffen Haak, Joerg Strebel and Professor Dr. Christof Weinhardt
Partners:
Sponsored by: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
Publications

1
Stößer, J.; Neumann, D.; Weinhardt, C. 2010
Market-Based Pricing in Grids: On Strategic Manipulation and Computational Cost. European Journal of Operational Research (EJOR) 203(2). 464–475.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2009.07.033
@Article{CitationKey,
author = {St\"{o}\sser, Jochen and Neumann, Dirk and Weinhardt, Christof},
title = {{Market-Based Pricing in Grids: On Strategic Manipulation and
Computational Cost}},
journal = {European Journal of Operational Research (EJOR)},
year = {2010},
volume = {203},
pages = {464–475},
number = {2},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2009.07.033},
abstract = {Grid technologies and the related concepts of utility computing
and cloud computing enable the dynamic sourcing of computer resources and
services, thus allowing enterprises to cut down on hardware and software expenses
and to focus on key competencies and processes. Resources are shared across
administrative boundaries, e.g. between enterprises and/or business units. In
this dynamic and inter-organizational setting, scheduling and pricing become
key challenges. Market mechanisms show promise for enhancing resource allocation
and pricing in grids. Current mechanisms, however, are not adequately able to
handle large-scale settings with strategic users and providers who try to benefit
from manipulating the mechanism. In this paper, a market-based heuristic for
clearing large-scale grid settings is developed. The proposed heuristic and
pricing schemes find an interesting match between scalability and strategic
behavior.}}

					
 
2
Strebel, J. 2009
Cost Optimization Model for Business Applications in Virtualized Grid Environments. in: Altmann, J.; Rana, O. F.; Buyya, R. (eds.), Grid Economics and Business Models. (Delft) LNCS, no. 5745. Springer. 74–87.
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Strebel, J\"{o}rg},
title = {{Cost Optimization Model for Business Applications in Virtualized Grid
Environments}},
booktitle = {Grid Economics and Business Models},
year = {2009},
address = {Delft},
pages = {74 - 87},
editor = {Altmann, J\"{o}rn and Rana, Omer F. and Buyya, Rajkumar},
number = {5745},
series = {LNCS},
publisher = {Springer}}

					
 
3
Stößer, J. 2009
Market-Based Scheduling in Distributed Computing Systems. Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Universität Karlsruhe (TH). Dissertation, Referent/Betreuer: Prof. Dr. Christof Weinhardt.
http://digbib.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/volltexte/1000010437
@Phdthesis{CitationKey,
author = {St\"{o}\sser, Jochen},
title = {{Market-Based Scheduling in Distributed Computing Systems}},
school = {Fakult\"{a}t f\"{u}r Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Universit\"{a}t
Karlsruhe (TH)},
year = {2009},
note = {Dissertation, Referent/Betreuer: Prof. Dr. Christof Weinhardt},
url = {http://digbib.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/volltexte/1000010437},
abstract = {In verteilten Rechensystemen (bspw. im Cluster und Grid Computing)
kann eine Knappheit der zur Verf\"{u}gung stehenden Ressourcen auftreten. Hier
haben Marktmechanismen das Potenzial, Ressourcenbedarf und -angebot durch
geeignete Anreizmechanismen zu koordinieren und somit die \"{o}konomische
Effizienz des Gesamtsystems zu steigern. Diese Arbeit besch\"{a}ftigt sich anhand
vier spezifischer Anwendungsszenarien mit der Frage, wie Marktmechanismen f\"{u}r
verteilte Rechensysteme ausgestaltet sein sollten.}}

					
 
4
Stößer, J.; Neumann, D. 2008
GreedEx – A Scalable Clearing Mechanism for Utility Computing. Electronic Commerce Research 8. 235–253.
http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1466796
@Article{CitationKey,
author = {St\"{o}\sser, Jochen and Neumann, Dirk},
title = {{GreedEx -- A Scalable Clearing Mechanism for Utility Computing}},
journal = {Electronic Commerce Research},
year = {2008},
volume = {8},
pages = {235--253},
url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1466796},
abstract = {Scheduling becomes key in dynamic and heterogeneous utility computing
settings. Market-based scheduling offers to increase efficiency of the resource
allocation and provides incentives to offer computer resources and services.
Current market mechanisms, however, are inefficient and computationally
intractable in large-scale settings.



The contribution of this paper is the proposal as well as analytical and numerical
evaluation of GreedEx, an exchange for clearing utility computing markets, based
on a greedy heuristic, that does achieve a distinct trade-off: GreedEx obtains
fast and near-optimal resource allocations while generating prices that are
truthful on the demand-side and approximately truthful on the supply-side.}}

					
 
5
Amar, L.; Mu'alem, A.; Stößer, J. 2008
On the Importance of Migration for Fairness in Online Grid Markets. Proceedings of the 9th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Grid Computing (GRID), 29 September - 1 October 2008, Tsukuba, Japan. Full paper.
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Amar, L. and Mu'alem, A. and St\"{o}\sser, J.},
title = {{On the Importance of Migration for Fairness in Online Grid Markets}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Grid
Computing (GRID), 29 September - 1 October 2008, Tsukuba, Japan},
year = {2008},
note = {Full paper}}

					
 
6
Amar, L.; Stößer, J.; Levy, E.; Shiloh, A.; Barak, A.; Neumann, D. 2008
Harnessing Migrations in a Market-based Grid OS. Proceedings of the 9th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Grid Computing (GRID), 29 September - 1 October 2008, Tsukuba, Japan.
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Amar, L. and St\"{o}\sser, J. and Levy, E. and Shiloh, A. and Barak,
A. and Neumann, D.},
title = {{Harnessing Migrations in a Market-based Grid OS}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Grid
Computing (GRID), 29 September - 1 October 2008, Tsukuba, Japan},
year = {2008}}

					
 
7
Amar, L.; Mu'alem, A.; Stößer, J. 2008
The Power of Preemption in Economic Online Markets. in: Altmann, J. (ed.), The 5th International Workshop on Grid Economics and Business Models (GECON), 25-26 August, Las Palmas, Spain.
@Inproceedings{CitationKey,
author = {Amar, L. and Mu'alem, A. and St\"{o}\sser, J.},
title = {{The Power of Preemption in Economic Online Markets}},
booktitle = {The 5th International Workshop on Grid Economics and Business Models
(GECON), 25-26 August, Las Palmas, Spain},
year = {2008},
editor = {Altmann, J.},
month = {08},
abstract = {In distributed computer networks where resources are under
decentralized control, selfish users will generally not work towards one common
goal, such as maximizing the overall value provided by the system, but will
instead try to strategically maximize their individual benefit. This shifts
the scheduling policy in such systems -- the decision about which user may access
what resource -- from being a purely algorithmic challenge to the domain of
mechanism design.



In this paper we will showcase the benefit of allowing \emph{preemption} in
such economic online settings regarding the performance of market mechanisms
by extending the Decentralized Local Greedy Mechanism of Heydenreich et al.
(2006). This mechanism was shown to be 3.281-competitive with respect to total
weighted completion time if the players act rationally. We show that the
\emph{preemptive version} of this mechanism is 2-competitive. As a by-product,
preemption allows to relax the assumptions on jobs upon which this competitiveness
relies. In addition to this worst case analysis, we provide an in-depth empirical
analysis of the \emph{average case performance} of the original mechanism and
its preemptive extension based on real workload traces. Our empirical findings
indicate that introducing preemption improves both the utility and the slowdown
of the jobs. Furthermore, this improvement does not come at the expense of
low-priority jobs.}}

					
KIT – University of the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg and National Research Center of the Helmholtz Association